last, lastb — show a listing of last logged in users
last [options] [
username... ] [ tty... ]
lastb [options] [
username... ] [ tty... ]
searches back through the
/var/log/wtmp file (or the file designated
−f option) and
displays a list of all users logged in (and out) since that
file was created. One or more usernames and/or
ttys can be
given, in which case last will show only the
entries matching those arguments. Names of ttys can be abbreviated,
thus last 0 is the
same as last tty0.
When catching a SIGINT signal (generated by the interrupt key, usually control-C) or a SIGQUIT signal, last will show how far it has searched through the file; in the case of the SIGINT signal last will then terminate.
The pseudo user
reboot logs in each time the
system is rebooted. Thus last
reboot will show a log of all the reboots since
the log file was created.
lastb is the
same as last,
except that by default it shows a log of the
/var/log/btmp file, which contains all the
bad login attempts.
Display the hostname in the last column. Useful in
combination with the
For non-local logins, Linux stores not only the host name of the remote host, but its IP number as well. This option translates the IP number back into a hostname.
Tell last to use a
specific file instead of
can be given multiple times, and all of the specified
files will be processed.
Print full login and logout times and dates.
but displays the host's IP number instead of the
Tell last how many lines to show.
Display the users who were present at the specified
time. This is like using the options
−−until together with the
Suppresses the display of the hostname field.
Display the state of logins since the specified
This is useful, e.g., to easily determine who was
logged in at a particular time. The option is often
Display the state of logins until the specified time.
Define the output timestamp format to be one of
variant will not print any timestamps at all,
the default, and full is the same as
option. The iso variant will
display the timestamp in ISO-8601 format. The ISO
format contains timezone information, making it
preferable when printouts are investigated outside of
Display full user names and domain names in the output.
Display the system shutdown entries and run level changes.
The options that take the time argument understand the following formats:
|YYYY-MM-DD hh:mm||(seconds will be set to 00)|
|YYYY-MM-DD||(time will be set to 00:00:00)|
|hh:mm:ss||(date will be set to today)|
|hh:mm||(date will be set to today, seconds to 00)|
|yesterday||(time is set to 00:00:00)|
|today||(time is set to 00:00:00)|
|tomorrow||(time is set to 00:00:00)|
The files wtmp and btmp might not be found. The system only logs information in these files if they are present. This is a local configuration issue. If you want the files to be used, they can be created with a simple touch(1) command (for example, touch /var/log/wtmp).
The last command is part of the util-linux package and is available from Linux Kernel Archive
shutdown(8), login(1), init(8)
Copyright (C) 1998-2004 Miquel van Smoorenburg.
This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
(at your option) any later version.
This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
GNU General Public License for more details.
You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA